DMA Controller in Embedded System

Consider an office that contains a file cabinet. In that file cabinet is paperwork
that several office workers need to access. Some only need to access it once in
a while, while others require the paperwork much more often. The manager of the
office sets up a policy so that some of the individuals have a personal key to get
into the file cabinet, while others must get a shared key from the manager. In other
words, some office workers have direct access to the file cabinet, and others have
indirect access.

In many embedded system designs, the CPU is the only device that is connected
to the memory. This means that all transactions that deal with memory must use
the CPU to get the data portion of that transaction stored in memory, just as some
office workers had to obtain the manager’s key. Direct memory access (DMA) is a
feature that allows peripherals to access memory directly without CPU intervention.
These peripherals correspond to the office workers with their own keys.

For example, without DMA, an incoming character on a serial port would generate
an interrupt to the CPU, and the firmware would branch to the interrupt handler,
retrieve the character from the peripheral device, and then place the
character in a memory location. With DMA, the serial port places the incoming
character in memory directly. When a certain programmed threshold is reached, the
DMA controller (not the serial port) interrupts the CPU and forces it to act on
the data in memory. DMA is a much more efficient process. Many integrated
microprocessors have multiple DMA channels that they can use to perform
I/O-to-memory, memory-to-I/O, or memory-to-memory transfers.

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