The XML Data Type

At the heart of DB2’s native XML support is the XML data type. XML is now a first-class data type
in DB2, just like any other SQL type. The XML data type can be used in a “create table” statement
to define one or more columns of type XML (Figure 1). Since XML has no different status than any
other types, tables can contain any combination of XML columns and relational columns. An XML-only
application may define tables that contain XML columns only. A column of type XML can hold one
well-formed XML document for every row of the table. The NULL value is used to indicate the
absence of an XML document. Though every XML document is logically associated with a row of a
table, XML and relational columns are stored differently. Relational and XML data are stored in
different formats that match their respective data models. The relational columns are stored in
traditional row structures while the XML data is stored in hierarchical structures. The two are
closely linked for efficient cross-access.

An XML schema is not required in order to define an XML column or to insert or query XML data. An
XML column can hold schema-less documents as well as documents for many different or evolving XML
schemas. Schema validation is optional on a per-document basis. Thus, the association between
schemas and documents is per document and not per column, which provides maximum flexibility.
Unlike a Varchar or a CLOB type, the XML type has no length associated with it. The XML storage
and processing architecture imposes no limit on the size of an XML document. Currently, only the
client-server communication protocol limits XML bind-in and bind-out to 2GB per document. With
very few exceptions, this is acceptable for all XML applications.

Figure 1: Table with a column of type “XML”

Values of type XML are processed in an internal representation that is not a string and not
directly comparable to strings. The XMLSERIALIZE function can be used to convert an XML value into
a string value which represents the same XML document. Similarly, the XMLPARSE function can be
used to convert a string value which represents an XML document into the corresponding XML value.

The XML type can be used not only as a column type but also as a data type for host variables in
languages such as C, Java, and COBOL. The XML type is also allowed for parameters and variables in
SQL stored procedures, user-defined functions (UDFs), and external stored procedures written in C
and Java. This is important for flexible application development.

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