Existing Graph Based Stream Authentication Methods Using Crypto Signatures

For graph-based authentication, the main challenge is how to design a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG)
with lowest overhead, highest verification probability and lowest sender and receiver delay.
However, there are tradeoffs between these performance criteria, which are summarized below.

  • Computation complexity: The number of hash operations and signature operations required at the
    sender and receiver. Note that computing a signature is much more complex than computing a hash.
  • Overhead size: The extra bytes introduced by stream authentication, including the hashes and
    signatures appended to the packets. The overhead size is determined by the number of edges in
    the authentication graph. Note that a signature is much bigger in size than a hash.
  • Verification percentage (or verification probability): the percentage of verifiable packets
    among all the received packets. Intuitively, the more redundant paths a packet has to the
    signature packet, the higher the probability of being verified.
  • Sender delay: The delay at the sender (in number of packets) from the time when the packet
    is produced by the encoder to the time that all authentication data appended to this packet
    is ready. Real-time communication scenario requires low sender delay. For non-real-time
    scenario, e.g., pre-encoded content for VOD applications, it is not important because the
    sender has priori knowledge of all packets.
  • Receiver delay: The delay at the receiver (in number of packets) from the time a packet is
    received to the time that it can be verified. For authenticated video, each packet must be
    received and pass the verification before its playout deadline.
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