Polygon-Assisted JPEG and MPEG Compression of Synthetic Images

In realtime image compression and decompression hardware make it possible for a high-performance
graphics engine to operate as a rendering server in a networked environment. If the client is a
low-end workstation or set-top box, then the rendering task can be split across the two devices.
we explore one strategy for doing this. For each frame, the server generates a high-quality
rendering and a low-quality rendering, subtracts the two, and sends the difference in compressed
form. The client generates a matching low quality rendering, adds the decompressed difference image,
and displays the composite. Within this paradigm, there is wide latitude to choose what constitutes
a high-quality versus low-quality rendering. We have experimented with textured versus untextured
surfaces, fine versus coarse tessellation of curved surfaces, Phong versus Gouraud interpolated
shading, and antialiased versus nonantialiased edges. In all cases, our polygon-assisted compression
looks subjectively better for a fixed network bandwidth than compressing and sending the high-quality
rendering. We describe a software simulation that uses JPEG and MPEG-1 compression, and we show results
for a variety of scenes.

we consider an alternative solution that partitions the rendering task between client and server. We use
the server to render those features that cannot be rendered in real time on the client – typically
textures and complex shading. These are compressed using JPEG or MPEG and sent to the client. We use the
client to render those features that compress poorly using JPEG or MPEG – typically edges and smooth
shading. The two renderings are combined in the client for display on its screen. The resulting image is
subjectively better for the same bandwidth than can be obtained using JPEG or MPEG alone. Alternatively,
we can produce an image of comparable quality using less bandwidth.

Client-server relationship

The hardware consists of a high-performance workstation (henceforth called the server), a low-performance
workstation (henceforth called the client), and a network. To produce each frame of synthetic imagery,
these two machines perform the following three steps:

(1) On the server, compute a high-quality and low-quality rendering of the scene using one of the
partitioning strategies described.

(2) Subtract the two renderings, apply lossy compression to the difference image, and send it to the client.

(3) On the client, decompress the difference image, compute a low-quality rendering that matches the
low-quality rendering computed on the server, add the two images, and display the resulting composite image.

Depending on the partitioning strategy, there may be two geometric models describing the scene or one model
with two rendering options. The low-quality model may reside on both machines, or it may be transmitted from
server to client (or client to server) for each frame. If the model resides on both machines, this can be
implemented using display lists or two cooperating copies of the application program. The latter solution is
commonly used in networked visual simulation applications. To provide interactive performance, the server in
such a system would normally be a graphics workstation with hardware accelerated rendering. The client might
be a lower-end hardware-accelerated workstation, or it might be a PC performing rendering in software, or it
might be a set-top box utilizing a combination of software and hardware. Differencing and compression on the
server, and decompression and addition on the client, would most likely be performed in hardware, although
real-time software implementations are also beginning to appear. One important caveat regarding the selection
of client and server is that there are often slight differences in pixel values between equivalent-quality
renderings computed by highperformance and low-performance machines, even if manufactured by the same
vendor. If both renderings are antialiased, these differences are likely to be small.


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